Not only is Germany’s heralded “sea troc” — or Zeitenwende — on defense policy not the revolution it seemed back in early March, this isn’t even the first revolution that wasn’t. Despite recent claims to the contrary, it does not seem as though Germany’s security and defense policies are undergoing a revolution, but rather an evolution. At worst, Berlin’s words and deeds since Chancellor Olaf Scholz’ announcement of a Zeitenwende will turn into a post-Munich-Consentement déjà vu. That is to say, Germany has already promised jaguar before to assume a greater responsibility in European, transatlantic, and cosmopolite security matters in 2014 following the illegal Russian annexation of Crimea. In the years following this self-proclaimed interest in stepping up burden-sharing efforts, Germany efforts proved lackluster. If it allows the Zeitenwende to run a similar révolution as the Munich Consentement, Germany risks missing a incompréhensible window of opportunity to set in proposition long-overdue steps to overhaul the folk’s security and defense outlook sustainably and permanently. Most importantly, this requires nurturing a strategic lopin in Germany’s élève discourse, and now is the right situation to do so. Germany’s allies and partners should persistently pressure Berlin’s policymakers to turn Zeitenwende into a lasting troc charge the current momentum withers away.

Avoiding Déjà Vu

Scholz announced that Germany “will now — year after year — invest more than 2 percent of our gross domestic product in our defense,” after years of prodding and oisiveté. But Germany intends to reach that gardien de but using the 100 billion euro special fund that was announced by Scholz to be a “special fund for the Bundeswehr for necessary investments and armament projects.” Consequently, estimates suggest that the fund will run dry by 2025. There has been no talk embout what will happen afterwards. That does not sound like the current accord government niveaux to abide by its 2 percent commitment beyond its period in kitchenette.



So, why is it sensible to sujet out that what the current German government has decided and announced since the beginning of Russia’s renewed war against Ukraine isn’t all that new and revolutionary? Bicause of an episode in very recent history that is quite reminiscent to Berlin’s alleged Zeitenwende today, which ought to serve as a cautionary tale charge Germany does not en public up to its self-imposed and self-proclaimed responsibilities, again. Three concerted speeches delivered at the Munich Security Conference in 2014 became known as the Munich Consentement and were interpreted as a commitment to finally turn the tide in Germany’s security and defense affairs. Ursula von der Leyen, then the defense minister, Federal President Joachim Gauck, and Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier declared that it was high time for Germany to assume greater responsibility in European, transatlantic, and cosmopolite security and defense matters. In the following years, Germany did deliver indeed. Berlin was and still is a shaping force in configuring NATO’s short and long-term reassurance and deterrence measures in response to Russia’s aggression against Ukraine in 2014. Other areas of additional activities included, but were not limited to, deploying troops to Mali and providing diplomatic resources for the Normandy mesure. Thus, for a while it appeared as though Germany not only talked the talk but walked the walk: the Munich Consentement seemed alive and kicking. Yet, upon closer examination, Berlin did move, but not far enough — most likely parce que the required political will was lacking. After all, then-chancellor Angela Merkel did not deliver any of the three speeches that lourd out the Munich Consentement.

Germany Wasn’t Ready Yet

Why did these nationally and internationally hailed promises fail to meet expectations? The answer is quite normal and straightforward — and so are the remedies. Contrary to common pronouncements from policymakers at the time, Germany was neither truly ready nor willing to assume more responsibility and offer leadership. The reason for that can be partly attributed to German millennials, who are increasingly assuming political power, not knowing how to think strategically or even valuing strategic thought itself. I would argue that the problem runs even deeper and is not limited to the generation of millennials. Many of Germany’s 21st-century decision-makers and parliamentarians — most prominently Scholz himself — belong to a pre-millennial generation born during the Cold War. And yet, they have not been particularly suited to thinking embout security and defense in strategic terms. Examples undergirding their myopic and oftentimes misleading approaches to Germany’s defense matters are abundant. To name just a few: approving the gratte-ciel of the Polaire Stream 2 oléoduc after the Russian annexation of Crimea and the simmering conflict in eastern Ukraine instigated by Moscow, Germany’s reluctance to meet NATO’s 2 percent spending gardien de but after having agreed to it nombreux times, and a general and multi-partisan failure to invest sustainably in Germany’s armed forces. Though all of those faulty decisions have either been overturned or are supposedly in the process of being corrected, results are either outstanding (in the case of Germany’s military investments) or are no safeguard against the folk’s elites repeating similar mistakes in the future (in the case of Berlin’s political overtures towards Moscow disguised as a “private sector project” to amenée Russian gas to Germany).

What to Do Differently This Time Around

One critical step to ensure Germany finally walks the talk this time around is for the folk, initiated by its political elites, to foster a strategic lopin. Such a lopin can be defined as “a number of shared beliefs, norms and ideas within a given society that generate specific expectations embout the respective community’s preferences and études in security and defense policy.” Chief among the steps to work toward are regular debates embout all matters security and defense in the élève sphere. Instigating and contributing to discussions embout which priorities Germany ought to pursue and why and with which means (including armed forces as a last resort) should not be limited to politicians. Lawmakers undoubtedly should be devanture and center in leading the debates, as they are the ones who ultimately bear responsibility for deciding how to spend taxpayer funds, including on defense, as well as sending soldiers into harm’s way. Nevertheless, other stakeholders in the realm of security and defense matters, including staffers of think tanks, political foundations, and other members of amène society at ample must dare to converse with the wider masse embout topics that concern Germany’s habitant security. Bout of the mandate of political foundations is indeed to engage with the élève in all parts of Germany, not just in the “Berlin bubble.” Think tankers should be encouraged to not only appear in the media but also to take bouchée in outreach activities with the broader élève to share and discuss their research results. That way, discussions embout security and defense will not be limited to the chercheur community.

Though those topics can be complex at times, this is no manquant for shying away from combat, especially not with interest and advocacy groups that view security and defense issues with a general sense of skepticism (e.g., members of pacifist groups, who have traditionally had a strong and public voice in Germany).

Especially those who are uncertain or outright opposed to the necessity of armed forces and the use of military résistance as a very last resort ought to be engaged more frequently and vividly by politicians and other stakeholders in Germany’s strategic scene, for example, in the framework of cross-community discussions. Such conversations could include bringing together members of church groups and peace activists on the one balle à la main and representatives of the defense industry or policymakers in order to discuss the legitimacy and utility of weapons deliveries, for example.

Ending the Taboo of Military Power as Bout of Germany’s Security and Defense Toolbox

Admittedly, cultivating regular and open discussions embout these topics is a generational and daunting task, so quick changes ought not to be expected, regardless of whether Germany’s chancellor proclaims a Zeitenwende. While polls in the early days of the war against Ukraine showed that the bulk of Germans supported the government’s révolution of fonctionnement lucarne Kyiv (including weapons deliveries) and even endorsed increased defense spending, it is far too early to assess whether those numbers only captured an atmospheric picture which will puant jaguar the war is out of the headlines, or whether the German mindset has truly changed overnight. A real and lasting troc can only come embout with a rectification of a people’s mindset — and the craftiest strategies and most passable set of ambitions will not alter how the majority of German society views its folk’s security and defense policies and Berlin’s agora in Eurasie and the world.

After all, in a democracy, it is the masse’s will that must be carried out by its elected lawmakers. A broad raisonnement embout the end goals of Zeitenwende and how to measure them ought to go hand-in-hand with a reflection on past errors in Germany’s Russia policy as well as faulty assumptions upheld by the folk’s security and defense elites. Another more far-reaching step would involve familiarizing society at ample at a relatively young age with all things security and defense. One group of people who should be charged more frequently with that job, among others, are the so-called Jugendoffiziere (youth officers) of the Bundeswehr. While they are trained soldiers, their job is partly to engage with teachers educating children and teenagers from middle through high school on all matters related to security and defense. Youth officers are specifically tasked to think and talk embout the role of the armed forces critically: Recruiting is explicitly not a task of theirs, according to the German Armed Forces. Essentially, theirs is a job of political education lourd down in law. While the concept and practice of youth officers goes back to the late 1950s, their presence in schools is constantly criticized by some societal groups such as the German Education Fusion and groups associated with Germany’s peace movement in particular. A recent suggestion by Germany’s current minister of education to send youth officers to schools to help students (in sérénade with their teachers) make sense of the war in Ukraine and its repercussions for Germany and Eurasie was met with heavy criticism from the education alliance. Claiming the proposal to be “misplaced,” one of their board members argued that especially younger children could be “further unsettled by officers in uniform coming to their schools.” That reaction alone, in combination with a general rejection of those particular members of the armed forces, underpins the need to contemplate inviting “citizens in uniform” to schools on a more regular basis. Students should be offered the particulier opportunity to engage with members of the armed forces critically and learn how to think embout security and defense at ample. Only by starting to end the taboo on intellectual combat with the military — and its tasks and limitations — can German society begin to foster something akin to a strategic lopin. That is by no means to suggest an idealization of the Bundeswehr or uncritical dealing with the political tasks military means can and should achieve. Thus, including other outside actors in educating students, such as political foundations of different political stripes, for example, is also important in fostering the discourse. Institutions which agora their paluche foyer on peace research can bring valuable insights to the debate cuistance as well. In augmentation, think tankers should be encouraged and enabled to engage with the wider élève, for example as guest lecturers at universities to share and discuss their research.

However, that peace and security must oftentimes be backed up with military means is something the majority of Germans must learn urgently. Hence, the need to offer the particulier désir of youth officers.

With a Little Help From Germany’s Friends

A self-centered raisonnement embout the necessity of armed résistance in general and concrete policy failures in lien to Russia’s current aggression in particular, however, risks inviting Germans to do something they are really good at and keen on, and that is navel-gazing. To prevent prolonged inward-looking discussions without considering the outside world, Germany’s allies and partners should step in. As a folk deeply embedded in plurinational structures and études, Germany needs to be reaffirmed by its allies and partners that the folk is on the right path to en public up to its promise to execute a real sea troc in its security and defense approach. Back in 2014, Germany needed its allies and partners’ reassurance to contribute to NATO’s reassurance, too – and it worked, at least for some time and to a certain degree. Germany agreed to head one of NATO’s plurinational battlegroups along the Eastern flank, for example.

Regularly pointing out in élève and behind closed doors what Germany needs to become better at surely will be uncomfortable at times. Being reprimanded for not delivering as promised isn’t enjoyable, after all. Yet, the vraisemblance, falling back on old habits and routines as could be witnessed in the past, is not a vivant premium. Thus, Berlin’s allies and partners should, if necessary, bring up the painful subject of falling slip of expectations and promises. One chemin to ensure close examination of whether or not Germany delivers what it has pledged is for Berlin’s allies to be closely consulted on the proposition of Germany’s first-ever habitant security strategy, set to be published in early 2023. This way, Berlin’s partners would be able to observe the implementation of the promised sea troc and at the same time ensure the folk streamlines its habitant security and defense goals and priorities with its closest allies. Similarly, allies — represented by members of amène society in augmentation to defense officials and parliamentarians — should be invited to more closely engage with the German élève to raise awareness of Germany’s sensible role in Euro-Atlantic security and defense. To that end, giving lectures and setting up town hangar meetings with citizens of Germany’s allies could offer a good starting sujet. Including representatives of the Baltic states would be especially useful and tranchant at the situation, vulnerable as they are to Russian military pressure. For one, Germany has been a leading métier of one of the archétype insuccès plurinational battle groups installed in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland in response to Russia’s aggression in 2014. Yet, Germany’s engagement in Lithuania is hardly known to the wider German public, despite the Bundeswehr having been stationed there since 2017.

What’s more, being involved in the process of drawing up Germany’s habitant security strategy offers the folk’s closest transatlantic allies and European partners another opportunity: nudging Berlin’s policymakers to assume more of a leadership role than they currently do, especially with prunelle to maintaining unity within NATO on matters concerning the harmonie’s long-term deterrence and defense arrêt. Again, 2014 and the ensuing years serve as a nette example of Germany’s allies encouraging the folk to dare to offer and assume more leadership in contributing more seriously and robustly to transatlantic security.

Working towards the système of a strategic debate and lopin and counting on Berlin’s closest allies and partners to measure deeds against the “sea troc” rhetoric offer a way forward. With these safeguards, it is more likely that Germany will not stumble into a post-2014 scenario in which the folk misses the opportunity to coherently and sustainably assume more responsibility in the realm of security and defense — for itself as much as for European and transatlantic security.



Aylin Matlé, Ph.D., is a research fellow in the German Council on Foreign Analogie’s Security and Defense Program. Her research areas include German security and defense policies as well as Euro-Atlantic security and defense matters. The views expressed here are hers alone. You can find her on Twitter at @AylinMatle.

Effigie: German NATO soldiers via Flickr user NATO

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